A balanced diet may be defined as one which contains the various groups of foodstuffs such as energy yielding foods, body building foods and protective foods in the correct proportions so that the individual is assured of obtaining the minimum requirements of all the nutrients. The component of a balance diet will differ according to age, sex, physical activity, economic status and the physiological state viz., pregnancy, lactation, etc. To get a balanced diet and nutrition it is important to choose foods from all food groups (cereals, pulses, poultry and meat, milk and milk products, fruits and vegetables share the basis of importance of diet plan). Eating a varied diet increases the chances that all your nutrient needs will be met; hence it is very important to take a balance diet.
Components of a Balanced Diet
The basic components of a healthy diet include the right amount of:
- Protein (found in fish, meat, poultry, dairy products, eggs, nuts, and beans)
- Fat (found in animal and dairy products, nuts, and oils)
- Carbohydrates (found in fruits, vegetables, pasta, rice, grains, beans and other legumes, and sweets)
- Vitamins (such as vitamins A, B, C, D, E, and K)
- Minerals (such as calcium, potassium, and iron)
A healthy diet should consist of
- 45% to 65% carbohydrates.
- 10% to 35% protein.
- 20% to 35% fat, with no more than 10% saturated fat and very little (or no) trans fat.
DIABETIC LOW FAT LOW CHOLESTROL DIET
FOODS TO BE TAKEN LIBERALLY
Fresh green salads and other vegetables except potato, yam, colocasia and sweet potato.
Beverages like rasam, vegetable soups, skimmed butter milk (diluted), lime juice.
FOODS TO BE TAKEN IN LIMITED QUANTITIES
1.Cereals like wheat flour, rice and their products and pulses/ grams should be taken as advised.
2. Variety of refined oils should be taken. Select atleast one from each group for your daily cooking.
Group A- sunflower/ safflower/corn/soybean / rice bran
Group B- mustard/ groundnut/ olive/ canola.
3. Lean meats, chicken without skin & fish (not more than 30g /day up to 2-3 times per day) should be preferably taken in baked, grilled, steamed, boiled and roasted form.
4. Skimmed milk should be preferred including that needed in curd, paneer and other beverages.
5. Fruits like guava, orange, papaya, watermelon, apple, and sweet lime – 100-200 gm/day. Wherever feasible have your fruit with the peel.
6. Fenugreek seeds and guar gum (10g) on daily basis help to manage diabetes.
7. Almond rich in MUFA and walnuts rich in omega-3 fatty acids can be used. (3-4 pcs/day)
FOODS TO BE AVOIDED
1. Sugar, honey, jam. Jaggery, glucose and sweets like ladoo, burfi, kheer, pudding, and dessert, ice-cream.
2. Saturated and Trans fat like butter, ghee, vanaspati, coconut oil etc.
3. Bakery products like cakes, pastries made in saturated fats (or butter) ice cream etc
4. Fried food e.g. chips, fried pappad, samosa, puri, patties etc.
5. Refined starch products like corn flour, commercial jelly products, custard powder and arrowroot powder etc.
6. High calorie like mango, chickoo, banana, grapes, custard apple, jack fruit etc.
7. Dry fruits and nuts like cashew nuts, peanuts, coconuts and oil seeds etc.
8. Aerated drinks, shakes and fruit juices etc.
9. Ham, Bacon, yolk of egg, red meats, crab, shrimps, lobsters, prawns etc
10. Malted beverages like boost, bourn vita and proteinex etc.
11. Pickles made in oil.
12. Milk products like khoa, cream, processed cheese etc.
13. Canned, tinned, preserved foods like tinned fruits, sauces etc to be avoided.
RECOMMENDED INTAKE OF SALT FOR CARDIC PATIENT IS LESS THAN 1500 MG (1.5G) PER DAY:METHODS FOR LOWERING THE LEVEL OF SODIUM IN FOOD :-
- Draining the canned item & soaking them in fresh water.
- Diluting the food products.
- Consuming food in its natural or cooked from, without salt .
- Herbs, spices, lemon juices, garlic, pepper can be used to enhance the flavor of food without salt.
- Prefer low salt preparation like baked, instead of frying.
FOOD TO BE AVOIDED :-
- Sea salt & rock salt
- Soya sauce, ketchup, mustard, peanut butter.
- Seasonings like bullions, stock cubes, bacon bits, grated parmesan, cheese.
- Canned food items
- Processed food items.
- Platters of pretzels, pickles, crackers, potato chips, French fries.
- Salted lassi & other drinks.
- Preserved food items like become, ham, sausages.
- Salted nets & popcorns, papads, chutney.
- Brine & MSG.
- Additional salt.
HEALTH METHODS :-
- Home cooking
- Check the food labels for sodium.
- Add non-salty seasoning in place of salt.
- Remove the salt shakes from your table.
- Drink plenty of water, to dilute the sodium in your body.
- Encourage people for unsalted life style.
- Use fresh water fish.
Mediterranean diet describes a specific mix of dietary food ingredients, to promote health and longevity in people. Mediterranean diet can drastically reduce the chance of developing conditions such as heart disease, type II diabetes, high blood pressure, obesity and even Alzheimer’s disease.
– Maximize your intake of vegetables, legumes, fruits and whole grain cereals.
– Limit your red meat intake a fish and poultry are healthy substitutes.
– Use mono unsaturated olive oil or rapeseeds oil in place of animal fat such as butter or lard.
– Limit your intake of highly processed fast foods and ready meals where you cannot tell saturated fat and salt intake.
– Eat no more than moderate amounts of dairy products, and preferably low fat ones.
– Do not add salt to your food at the table.
– Snack on fruit, dried fruit and unsalted nuts rather than cakes, crisps and biscuits.
– Drinking (red) wine during meals, but no more than three small glasses per day for men and no more than two small glasses for women.
– Water is the best non-alcoholic beverage.
MEDITERRANEAN DIET INGREDIENTS
Health’s promoting food types to be encouraged
VEGTABLES AND FRIUTS
Vegetables like onions, cabbage, carrots, cucumbers, spinach, broccoli, asparagus, lettuce, cauliflower, garlic and pepper
– Fruits like oranges, grapes, apples, bananas, pears, melons, plums, cherries, pine apples
Olives, figs contains high fiber, anti – oxidants and vitamin C which is helpful is reducing risk of heart and vascular disease, cancers and bowel problems
Cereals like wheat, barley, oats, millet, corn, brown rice, cereal flakes, muesli, porridge, whole meal pasta, whole meal bread, spaghetti, Crip bread and whole meal biscuits. Contain protein, carbohydrate, fibers, vitamins, minerals and anti-inflammatory agents which associated with decreased bowel problem, and decreased heart disease.
Legumes (grow in pods) like peas, beans, lentils, chickpeas, peanuts or baked beans or peas, soups and stews are rich in protein, carbohydrate, fiber, vitamin B and vitamin C and associated with reduced risk of heart and vascular disease.
WHITE AND OILY FISH AND SEAFOOD
White fish and shellfish like sole, cod, plaice, haddock, hake, halibut, sea bass, turbot, mullet, tinned tuna, squid, prows, crab, lobster. whole fish- whitebait, sardines, anchovy. oily fish-salmon, herring, trout, fresh tuna and also fish liver oil contains proteins, essential vitamins, and minerals.
Oily fish contains cardio protective omega 3 fatty acids, vitamins A and vitamins D. whole fish are a source of calcium and phosphorus. shellfish are also good sources of trace minerals.
Mix use of oily and white fish in the delis an alternative source of protein that reduces the risk of heart disease and heartbeat irregularities.
Beneficial food types, to be carefully measured
MONO-UNSATURATED OILS (FATS)
Mono- unsaturated oils like olive oil and rapeseed oil also found in olives, nuts and seeds, avocados- high in mono- unsaturated fat, low in unsaturated fat, high in calories. Also contain essential fatty acids and assist with vitamin absorption. This half to protect against heart disease, some cancers (breast) and assist in lowering blood pressure
If take king in excess- risk of obesity due to high energy content.
LEAN WHITE MEAT
Lean white meat like chicken, turkey & chicken fast, turkey burgess, processed pies generally high in animal fat so not counting as lean white meat.
Lean white meat without skin is high in protein, vitamins (including B12) and minerals, but whit much less saturated animals fat than red meat.
If taking in excess then too much saturated fat is there.
NUTS AND SEEDS
Nuts-almonds, chestnuts, walnuts, cashew nuts, brazil nuts and seeds like pumpkin, sunflower, sesame, poppy also found in muesli, seeds on bread, on cakes nuts are high in good unsaturated fats, protein, fiber, vitamins and minerals.
It protects against heart disease, type IIdiabetes and reducing bad blood cholesterol. Nuts are high in energy so associated with weight-gain in excess.
WINE (RED WINE)
A huge range of red wines available prepared by fermentation of juice extracted from more than one variety of grapes, having properties of anti-oxidants and anti-inflammatory chemicals. If taking in small, regular amounts it can help protect against heart disease. If exceeding than recommended limits, increases risk of addiction cirrhosis, heart disease and cancer.
Hens eggs, ducks eggs extensively used in sauces, omelet’s, tarts, pancakes, mayonnaises custard etc-rich in protein, iodine, essential vitamins (B2, A, D)and minerals and also high in cholesterol. although having essential nutrients associated with an increased risk of type II diabetes. Potential heart and vascular disease risk.
–MILK AND DAIRY PRODUCTS
Milk, yoghurt, cheese, butter, cream and also sauces, desserts, creamy curries are high in protein, vitamin A, vit B12 and calcium but also high in bad cholesterol animals fat. Although calcium is there which is needed for strong bones, but in excess increased risk heard and vascular disease and raise bad cholesterol due to saturated fat.
Beef, pork, lamb and also found as mince and processed in pies, sausages and fast food-high in protein, Vit-b12, iron. High in saturated fats. Red meat contains essential nutrients but these can also obtained from white meat, fish and vegetables. If red meat is taking in excess and risk of cardiovascular disease and raised (bed) blood cholesterol.
Potatoes found as chips and crisps, used in pies and processed food-good source of energy, fiber, B-vitamins, potassium and vitamin-C. High in starch content associated with increased risk of type-ii diabetes.
–SWEET AND SWEET DESSERTS
Chocolates, sweet creamy desserts, biscuits, cakes, processed readymade desserts are high in sugar and saturated fats and high in calories and often low in vitamins and minerals.
Calcium is there if milk-based dessert. Dark chocolate and cocoa contain flavonoids (anti-oxidants).
If taking in excess, increased risk of heart and vascular disease, type ii diabetes, obesity and damage teeth.
Food groups guidance
Meat and sweets: less often
Poultry, eggs, cheese and yogurt: moderate portion, daily to weekly
Seafood and fish: often, at least two times a week
Fruits, vegetables, grains, olive oils, nuts: base every meal on these foods
legumes, beans, herbs &spices
If alcohol is consumed, it should be consumed in moderation- up to one drink per day for women and two drinks per day for men and only by adults of legal drinking age.
Most people drink alcohol, generally for enjoyment, relaxation and sociability and do so at levels that causes few adverse effects. However a substantial proportion of people drink at levels that increase their risk of alcohol-related harm. For some, health and hardship.
Moderate alcohol consumption is beneficial in following:
Reduce your risk of developing heart disease.
Reduce your risk of dying of a heart attack.
Risk of diabetes in significantly lower among moderate drinkers than abstainers possibly reduce risk of diabetics if alcohol consumption is 1 to 3 drinks/day.
Slow down the process of ageing.
Lower the risk of gallstones.
Heavy alcohol consumption increases risk of stroke while light to moderate alcohol consumption may be protective against total and ischemic stroke.
Moderate alcohol consumption, when part of a healthy diet and physical activity program, appeared to help to keep cognitive function intact with age. Despite the potential benefit at moderate consumption levels, heavy drinking and episodes of binge drinking impairs short and long term cognitive function and should be avoided.
GUIDELINES FOR MODERATE ALCOHOL USE:
Moderate alcohol use may be of most benefit only if you are an older adult or if you have existing risk factors for heart disease, such as high cholesterol. If you are middle aged or younger adult, some evidence shows that even moderate alcohol use may cause more harm than good. If you are a women and drink alcohol, talk to your doctor about taking supplemental folate to help reduce the risk of breast cancer associated with alcohol use.
In moderation up to one drink a day for women or two drinks a day for men. One drink include:-
Beer : 12 fluid ounces (355 ml) (5%alcohol)
Wine : 5 fluid ounces (148 ml) (12%alcohol)
Distilled spirits (80 proof): 1.5fluid oz (44ml) (40% alcohol)
Colon cancer: alcohol IS associated with risk of colon cancer in a close response manner that drinks a day.
Breast cancer: A women who drinks, on average, one drink per day has a 10% elevated risk alcohol suppresses blood foliate levels in some.
Liver cancer : moderate drinkers have a modest increase in risk of liver cancer as compared to those who abstain.
– Alcohol beverage contains calories that are not a good source of nutrients and when consumed beyond an average of two drinks a day may lead to weight gain.
HDL cholesterol, also known as your “good” cholesterol, the higher the better.
High-density lipoproteins are often referred to as HDL, or “good,” cholesterol. They act as cholesterol scavengers, picking up excess cholesterol in your blood and taking it back to your liver where it’s broken down. The higher your HDL level, the less “bad” cholesterol you’ll have in your blood.
Just lowering your LDL cholesterol might not be enough for people at high risk of heart disease. Increasing HDL cholesterol also can reduce your risk of heart disease.
Set your target HDL cholesterol level
Cholesterol levels are measured in milligrams (mg) of cholesterol per deciliter (dL) of blood or millimoles (mmol) per liter (L). When it comes to HDL cholesterol, aim for a higher number
AT RISK DESIRABLE.
Less than 40 mg/dL (1.0 mmol/L)
60 mg/dL (1.6 mmol/L) or above
Less than 50 mg/dL (1.3 mmol/L)
60 mg/dL (1.6 mmol/L) or above
If your HDL cholesterol level falls between the at-risk and desirable levels, you should keep trying to increase your HDL level to reduce your risk of heart disease.
If you don’t know your HDL level, ask your doctor for a baseline cholesterol test. If your HDL value isn’t within a desirable range, your doctor may recommend lifestyle changes to boost your HDL cholesterol.