Dyslipidemia is defined as abnormal lipoprotein levels in the blood. Dyslipidemia results from elevated level of total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, lipoprotein (A), triglyceride, low level of high density lipoprotein (HDL)cholesterol.
LDL is labeled as the â€˜Bad Cholesterol â€˜because it is the main lipoprotein responsible for initiating the process of atherosclerosis.. HDL is called the â€˜Good Cholesterolâ€™ as it transports the cholesterol deposited in arteries back to liver thereby decreasing the atheroma volume in blood vessels.
In well designed clinical trials employing hypolipidemic drug regimens that reduce LDL levels moderately (30-40%), fatal and non fatal coronary heart disease (CHD) events and strokes were reduced by 30-40%. Lipid modifying therapy is also recommended for patients with low HDL and normal LDL levels. In such patients drug therapy reduced the CHD events by 20-35%.
It is also well documented that early treatment and early reduction of modifiable risk factors can minimize the growth of atheroma.
Since the incidence of atherosclerosis and associated cardiovascular events are growing among the young population, it is recommended that the children should be screened for lipid profile between 9 and 11 years of age, followed by every five years as per guidelines endorsed by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Ideal methods of blood sample collection
For lipoprotein analysis blood samples should be drawn after fasting for 9-12 hours (no food or drink, except water)..
It is recommended that prophylactically all the subjects who has completed 20 years of age should get their Lipid profile analysed and then be repeated every 5 yrs.
- 1% reduction in LDL-C results in 1% reduction in cardiovascular events. (Heart Attack, Stroke & Death)
- 40 mg/dL reduction in LDL-C results in 25% reduction in Cardiovascular events
- 40 mg/dL reduction in LDL-C in children results in 54% reduction in Cardiovascular events
- 1% increase in HDL-C results in 2-3% reduction in Cardiovascular events
- Recently released data from AHA shows that Fourteen percent of adults have total cholesterol of 240 mg/dL or higher.